In cartographya map projection is a way to flatten a globe 's surface into a plane in order to make a map. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties.
The study of map projections is the characterization of the distortions. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. However, "map projection" refers specifically to a cartographic projection. Despite the name's literal meaning, projection is not limited to perspective projections, such as those resulting from casting a shadow on a screen, or the rectilinear image produced by a pinhole camera on a flat film plate.
Rather, any mathematical function that transforms coordinates from the curved surface distinctly and smoothly to the plane is a projection. Few projections in practical use are perspective. Most of this article assumes that the surface to be mapped is that of a sphere. The Earth and other large celestial bodies are generally better modeled as oblate spheroidswhereas small objects such as asteroids often have irregular shapes. The surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid.
A model globe does not distort surface relationships the way maps do, but maps can be more useful in many situations: they are more compact and easier to store; they readily accommodate an enormous range of scales; they are viewed easily on computer displays; they can be measured to find properties of the region being mapped; they can show larger portions of the Earth's surface at once; and they are cheaper to produce and transport.
These useful traits of maps motivate the development of map projections. Map projections can be constructed to preserve some of these properties at the expense of others.
Because the curved Earth's surface is not isometric to a plane, preservation of shapes inevitably leads to a variable scale and, consequently, non-proportional presentation of areas. Vice versa, an area-preserving projection can not be conformalresulting in shapes and bearings distorted in most places of the map. Each projection preserves, compromises, or approximates basic metric properties in different ways. The purpose of the map determines which projection should form the base for the map.
Because many purposes exist for maps, a diversity of projections have been created to suit those purposes.Researchgate reviews complaints book
Another consideration in the configuration of a projection is its compatibility with data sets to be used on the map. Data sets are geographic information; their collection depends on the chosen datum model of the Earth.
Different datums assign slightly different coordinates to the same location, so in large scale maps, such as those from national mapping systems, it is important to match the datum to the projection. The slight differences in coordinate assignation between different datums is not a concern for world maps or other vast territories, where such differences get shrunk to imperceptibility. Carl Friedrich Gauss 's Theorema Egregium proved that a sphere's surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion.
The same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth, such as oblate spheroidsellipsoids and geoids. Since any map projection is a representation of one of those surfaces on a plane, all map projections distort. The classical way of showing the distortion inherent in a projection is to use Tissot's indicatrix. Many other ways have been described for characterizing distortion in projections.
Rather than the original enlarged infinitesimal circle as in Tissot's indicatrix, some visual methods project finite shapes that span a part of the map. For example, a small circle of fixed radius e. Another way to visualize local distortion is through grayscale or color gradations whose shade represents the magnitude of the angular deformation or areal inflation. Sometimes both are shown simultaneously by blending two colors to create a bivariate map.This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page.
Leveled by. Maps present information about the world in a simple, visual way. They teach about the world by showing sizes and shapes of countries, locations of features, and distances between places. Scale All maps are scale models of reality. This relationship can be expressed by a graphic scalea verbal scaleor a representative fraction.
This means that any given unit of measure on the map is equal to one million of that unit on Earth. So, 1 centimeter on the map represents 1, centimeters on Earth, or 10 kilometers. One inch on the map represents 1, inches on Earth, or a little less than 16 miles. The size of the area covered helps determine the scale of a map.Marketing tool automation solutions incorporated
Many computerized maps allow the viewer to zoom in and out, changing the scale of the map. A person may begin by looking at the map of an entire city that only shows major roads and then zoom in so that every street in a neighborhood is visible.
Symbols Cartographers use symbols to represent geographic features. Colors are often used as symbols. Some maps show relief, or changes in elevation. These are lines that connect points that have equal elevation. If a map shows a large enough area, contour lines form circles. A group of contour line circles inside one another indicates a change in elevation.
Grids Many maps include a grid pattern, or a series of crossing lines that create squares or rectangles. The grid helps people locate places on the map. Longitude lines run north-south, from pole to pole.
Latitude and longitude lines are numbered. On maps showing greater detail, the grid is often given numbers and letters. The boxes made by the grid may be called A, B, C, and so on across the top of the map, and 1, 2, 3, and so on across the left side. The user finds the park by looking in the box where column B and row 4 cross. Title, date, author, and sources usually appear on the map though not always together.Cartography is defined as the science and art of making maps or graphical representations showing spatial concepts at various scales.
Maps convey geographic information about a place and can be useful in understanding topography, weather, and culture, depending upon the type of map. Early forms of cartography were practiced on clay tablets and cave walls. Today, maps can show a plethora of information. Some of the earliest known maps date back to 16, BCE and show the night sky rather than the Earth.
Ancient cave paintings and rock carvings also depict landscape features like hills and mountains. Archaeologists believe that these paintings were used both to navigate the areas they showed and to portray the areas that people visited. Maps were created in ancient Babylonia mostly on clay tabletsand it is believed that they were drawn with very accurate surveying techniques. These maps showed topographical features like hills and valleys but also had labeled features.
It is unique because it is a symbolic representation of the Earth. Ancient Greeks created the earliest paper maps that were used for navigation, and to depict certain areas of the Earth.
Anaximander was the first of the ancient Greeks to draw a map of the known world, and, as such, he is considered to be one of the first cartographers. Hecataeus, Herodotus, Eratosthenesand Ptolemy were other well-known Greek map makers. The maps they drew were based on explorer observations and mathematical calculations. The ancient Greek maps are important to the history of cartography because they often showed Greece as being at the center of the world and surrounded by an ocean.
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Other early Greek maps show the world as divided into two continents—Asia and Europe. Many Greek philosophers considered the Earth to be spherical, and this knowledge influenced their cartography. Ptolemy, for instance, created maps by using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to accurately show areas of the Earth as he knew it.
In addition to the ancient Greek maps, early examples of cartography also come out of China.Crm marketing pro cost comparison
These maps date to the fourth century BCE and were drawn on wooden blocks or produced on silk. Early Chinese maps from the Qin State show various territories with landscape features such as the Jialing River system as well as roads. Cartography continued to develop in China throughout its various dynasties, and in CE an early map using a grid system was created by Pei Ju of the Sui Dynasty.
The map was 30 feet 9. Inthe Guang Yutu atlas was produced; it contained over 40 maps that used a grid system and showed major landmarks like roads and mountains as well as the borders of different political areas. Chinese maps from the 16th and 17th centuries continued to develop in sophistication and clearly showed regions that were newly being explored. By the middle of the 20th century, China developed an Institute of Geography that was responsible for official cartography. It emphasized fieldwork in the production of maps focused on physical and economic geography.Article news nfl news
European early medieval maps were mainly symbolic, similar to those that came out of Greece. Beginning in the 13th century, the Majorcan Cartographic School was developed. This "school" was a collaboration of mostly Jewish cartographers, cosmographers, navigators, and navigational instrument-makers. The Majorcan Cartographic School invented the Normal Portolan Chart—a nautical mile chart that used gridded compass lines for navigation. Cartography developed further in Europe during the Age of Exploration as cartographers, merchants, and explorers created maps showing the new areas of the world that they visited.
The cartographers also developed detailed nautical charts and maps that were used for navigation.Follow along as National Geographic's Geographer, Alex Tait, recounts the experiences, challenges, and lessons learned while mapping Mount Everest. The world of geography is much more than place names and state capitals, and this cartoon aims to show the full breadth of the field.
Join us as we track bears, protect chimpanzees, and fly drones over the highest glacier in the world! Students research political, physical, and cultural features of their own state or district and work collaboratively to create a state tourism map. From making a treasure hunt to keeping a sensory journal, get ideas for how to have fun with geography in your daily life.
A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. Introduce young children to the concept of maps as representations of places with these community maps.
We are now offering free digital access to Explorer magazine. Inspire young readers through authentic and engaging nonfiction content that supports national reading and science standards.
Time at home is a great time to learn. This collection of engaging and fun lessons can be implemented at home with minimal supplies. Experts agree, play helps us understand our world, develop key social skills, build self-confidence, and mature emotionally as we grow. Infectious agents come in all shapes and sizes and pose different threats to the human body. Learn more about their impact on human health here. The videos in this collection feature explorers in the field teaching difficult topics they study everyday.
Use these resources to help your students understand the impact of and take action against climate change. View Collections. Spatial thinking allows students to comprehend and analyze phenomena related to the places and spaces around them—and at scales from what they can touch and see in a room or their neighborhood to a world map or globe. Our mapping resources are uniquely positioned to introduce map skills, engage students with classic National Geographic maps, and interact with cutting-edge mapping technology.
Mapping Tools. The National Geographic Learning Framework was developed as the foundation upon which our education mission is built. It expresses our core beliefs and values, and has been created to provide guidance for every educational product, resource, service, and experience we design.
Learn More. What to teach this month. Mapping the Stories of Our Planet See how maps are always changing and being updated. The more we learn, the better we can create our maps. What is Geography? Mapping Your State Students research political, physical, and cultural features of their own state or district and work collaboratively to create a state tourism map.
Fun with Geography From making a treasure hunt to keeping a sensory journal, get ideas for how to have fun with geography in your daily life.
Map A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. Maps of Familiar Places Introduce young children to the concept of maps as representations of places with these community maps. Featured Collections.By registering, you indicate that you agree to the Terms Of Service. All rights reserved. Stop stealing our stuff and ripping off our features, please. Certain headlines thanks to Rotoworld. Weather info Powered by Dark Sky.Article standing range chart calculator
Here you will find our projected performance for every player. Projected fantasy points use each daily site's specific scoring settings. Log in to numberFire To get the full benefits of numberFire, please log in.
You'll get the best projections in the business! Click here to sign up! Already have an account? Click here to log in! What is Premium? Weather info Powered by Dark Sky All rights reserved. Locked Players 0. Excluded Players 0.
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Excluded Players You have no excluded players. Excluded Teams You have no excluded teams. Slow down, eager beaver! To get the full benefits of numberFiresign up for free. Brown A. Metcalf D. Dobbins J. Hilton T. McKissic J. Pittman Jr. Michael Pittman Jr. Hockenson T. Chark D. Smith Jr. Irv Smith Jr. Bowden Jr. Lynn Bowden Jr.The National Football League NFL was founded in as the American Professional Football Association APFA with ten teams from four states, all of whom existed in some form as participants of regional leagues in their respective territories; it took on its current name in The NFL was the first professional football league to successfully establish a nationwide presence, after several decades of failed attempts.
League membership gradually stabilized throughout the s and s as the league adopted progressively more formal organization.Marketing concepts llc tidbits nj locations
The first official championship game was held in Other changes followed after the war; the office of league President evolved into the more powerful Commissioner postmirroring a similar move in Major League Baseball. Teams became more financially viable, the last team folding in and the league absorbing teams from the briefly more successful All-America Football Conference inof which only the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns survive to the present day.
The rival American Football League was founded in It was very successful, and forced a merger with the older NFL that resulted in a greatly expanded league and the creation of the Super Bowlwhich has become the most-watched annual sporting event in the United States. The league continued to expand to its current size of 32 teams. A series of labor agreements during the s and increasingly large television contracts have helped keep the league one of the most profitable in the U.
Through the s and the early part of the 20th century, professional football was primarily a regional sport, with most informal circuits centered around a single state or region with only limited play outside state lines.
There were no national leagues or tournaments for the professional game, despite numerous attempts: an earlier National Football League backed by what would become today's Major League Baseball [ citation needed ] was unable to expand beyond Pennsylvania inthe New York City-based World Series of Pro Football tournament disbanded after two seasons and lack of fan interest, and other attempts to either combine existing circuits or create new ones from scratch never materialized.
The regional circuits had coalesced into more or fewer leagues of varying degrees of organization. One of the most prominent at the time was the Ohio Leaguewhich boasted the services of legendary Native American athlete Jim Thorpeamong other stars. Another was the somewhat lower-caliber, but better-organized, New York Pro Championship ; two of the New York circuit's best teams, the Rochester Jeffersons and the Buffalo All-Starswent on a barnstorming tour of Ohio in After the Jeffersons played, and lost badly to Thorpe's Canton Bulldogs in a match, Jefferson's owner Leo Lyons believing that the foundation of a league could build a sport that rivaled baseball, which then held an effective monopoly on professional sport, in popularity suggested to Thorpe that a league be formed.
Lyons' vision of a national league of existing football clubs which, at the time, was competing with another proposed league, again backed by baseball was cut short by the United States' entry into World War I and further hampered by a flu pandemic inwhich forced most of the Ohio League teams to suspend operations due to either travel restrictions or loss of players to the war effort.
New York's teams, although they were forced to reduce their schedules, continued and along with the few other remaining teams that survived the suspension, including the OL's Dayton Triangles and Michigan's Detroit Heralds picked up many of the stars that remained stateside. A particularly important team that played the season was the Great Lakes Navy Bluejackets football team, which included future Hall of Famers Paddy DriscollGeorge Halas and Jimmy Conzelmanall of whom were in the armed forces together and, despite some of them being professionals, competed against college football squads and won the Rose Bowl.
These factors had the effect of spreading out the talent across a broader geographic area.
Over the course ofas professional football had increased in parity, teams began reaching out and participating in more barnstorming tours. By then, two informal but distinct interstate circuits had developed: one around the Eastern Seaboard particularly New York City, New Jersey, and Philadelphia that played mostly on Saturdays due to blue lawsand another centered around the Midwestern region Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, and upstate New York that played on Sundays.
It was the latter that formed the basis of what would eventually become the modern National Football League. Ohio's teams went along with the idea in the face of escalating costs: several bidding wars in the early s, both in Pennsylvania and Ohio, had damaged the sport significantly, and another bidding war was about to erupt if something was not done.
By forming a national league, teams reasoned that it would eliminate the practices of looting other teams' rosters and concentrating top talent in only a few teams, thus distributing talent more evenly and efficiently thereby reducing costs for each individual team while still keeping a top-level product on the field. On August 20,at a Hupmobile dealership in Canton, Ohiothe league was formalized, originally as the American Professional Football Conferenceinitially consisting only of the Ohio League teams, although some of the teams declined participation.
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The eleven founding teams initially struck an agreement over player poaching and the declaration of an end-of-season champion. Thorpe, while still playing for the Bulldogs, was elected president.
Only four of the founding teams finished the schedule and the undefeated Akron Pros claimed the first championship. Membership of the league increased to 22 teams — including more of the New York teams — inbut throughout the s the membership was unstable and the league was not a major national sport. On June 24,the organization, now headquartered in Columbus, Ohiochanged its title a final time to the National Football League.
The Green Bay Packers franchise, founded inis the oldest team not to change locations, but did not begin league play until Although the original NFL teams representing Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago and Detroit no longer exist, replacement franchises have since been established for those cities. Early championships were awarded to the team with the best won-lost record, initially rather haphazardly, as some teams played more or fewer games than others, or scheduled games against non-league, amateur or collegiate teams; this led to the title being decided on a tiebreaker ina disputed title inand the scheduling of an impromptu indoor playoff game in Demonstrate the challenge of transferring a spherical surface to a flat surface.
Explain that cartographers and others needing flat maps for practical uses have long been challenged to show Earth, a three-dimensional sphere, on a flat, two-dimensional plane. To demonstrate the challenge of moving from 3-D to 2-D with a sphere, invite volunteers to the front of the room and give each a navel orange or other type of orange that is easily peeled.
Ask them to peel the orange, trying as best they can to keep the peel in one piece. One at a time, place the peels on an overhead projector and discuss the shapes as a whole class. Have them imagine this is the surface of Earth or a globe. Show the video, The Cartographer's Dilemma, to introduce the challenges that cartographers face with representing Earth on a flat surface. Tell students they will next test the reverse, changing from a flat map to 3-D. Divide students into small groups of three.
Give each group one copy of the 3-page worksheet Map to Globe: 2-D to 3-D Models, scissors, and transparent tape.
Have groups study these versions of the globe. Ask: What is the relationship between lines of longitude and the black lines cuts on the map? The cuts are all made along lines of longitude. What is the relationship to the Equator? Cutlines stop at the Equator. Have each member of each group work with one page to cut and tape together a model, attempting to make a globe from the maps. Project the three maps Mercator, Mollweide, and Robinson showing different map projections that have been developed by cartographers.
Read the captions for each. Ask: What do you observe about the lines of longitude in each of these map projections? Some have lines of longitude meeting at the poles; some have parallel lines of longitude; some have curved lines of longitude but do not meet at north and south poles.
Have students analyze the three projections and the globe to note the distortions found. Have students also compare the size that area is proportional and the shapes of land and water on the maps with what they see on the globe.
You may want to show this short video more than once. Allow students to revise their findings based on this information. Have students refer to the Map Projections handout, and use the provided answer key to have a whole class discussion about their answers in the chart. Next, project the upside-down map of the world and the Pacific-centered world map. Does it matter if a continent is larger or smaller in relation to other continents and on the map and on the globe?
Have them debate what they believe is the best map for use in classrooms and the general media, such as news reporting. What recommendations do you have for school settings?
Have students write a persuasive essay about the need for use of a particular world map projection. Have them choose an audience: the head of the federal Department of Education, the chief navigation expert for a shipping company, or the editor of National Geographic magazine.
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